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A Guide to Phase 1 Clinical Trial Designs

Statistical Consultancy Team

The primary aims of Phase 1 Clinical Trials are to determine the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics (PK) of a compound. Trials have historically been conducted in the logical sequence of single ascending dose, multiple ascending dose, examination of preliminary effect of food on exposure, and potential drug-drug interaction, with assessments to determine the effect of gender, age, bioavailability and bioequivalence performed as necessary.

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Topics: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamic, Phase I Studies, Phase I Study Design, Clinical Trial Phases, Bioequivalence, Drug-drug Interaction, Bioavailability, Phase 3 Studies, Peadiatric Assessments

The Trend in Biosimilar Development and Recent FDA Guidance

Statistical Consultancy Team

At the present time, the regulatory and drug development communities are adapting to a rising trend in biosimilar development in a number of therapeutic areas.

The regulatory framework for biosimilars in the US is still evolving; the number of biosimilars approved by the FDA in 2015 was 1, this rose to 4 in 2016 and is set to increase in 2017. The FDA is developing and consulting on draft guidance documents that will shape future trials, and at this early stage there are a number of legal issues to be agreed around licencing conditions, such as the period of exclusivity and the applicability of the biosimilar to all approved indications of the reference product. To put this in context with the European landscape, biosimilars have been approved and used in the EU for over a decade without highlighting any major safety concerns. As of April 2017, there were 28 approved biosimilars in the EU on 11 different biologics. However, there are aspects of the emerging FDA guidance that will almost certainly be reflected in the evolution of trial designs in the future, for products aimed at the US market.

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Topics: PK Analysis, Biosimilars, Clinical Study Design, FDA, Regulatory Requirements, European Medicines Agency, Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamic, Bioequivalence, Demonstrating Biosimilarity, Imputation Methods

The Role of a Statistician In a Pre-Clinical Study

Statistical Consultancy Team

Pre-clinical trials, involving experiments in-vitro (literally ‘in glass’, i.e. in the laboratory, typically involving cells) and in-vivo (‘in animals’) are an essential part of drug development as it is a regulatory requirement  to investigate the safety of new drugs in-vitro and/or in-vivo before they are tested in humans. These trials can also be used to investigate the potential efficacy of new compounds.

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Topics: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamic, Randomization, Specialist Biometrics CRO, Pre-Clinical Study, Biostatistics Consulting

The Different Phases of Clinical Trials

Medical Writing Team

The development of investigational new drugs (INDs) involves performing clinical trials (or studies) to assess the safety and efficacy of the IND in humans.  These trials are usually classified into 4 phases of development (Phase 1 to 4), with each potentially lasting for several years.  Successful completion of each phase and approval by the appropriate regulatory authority or authorities (the European Medicines Agency [EMA] in the European Union, Food and Drug Administration [FDA] in the United States, Health Canada in Canada, or the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Japan) is required for progression to the next phase.

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Topics: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamic, Phase I Studies, Pre-Clinical Study, Clinical Trial Phases, Phase 3 Studies, Phase 4 Studies, Phase 2 Studies

The Creation of ADaM Datasets for Pharmacokinetic (PK) Analysis [Video]

Clinical Programming Team

In this recorded presentation a member of the Quanticate's Statistical Programming Team explores the creation of two ADaM datasets; ADPC and ADPP for Pharmacokinetic (PK) Analysis.


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Topics: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamic, CDISC Guidelines, CDISC SDTM, SDTM Domains, CDISC, Clinical Programming, SDTM, CDISC Standards, PK Analysis, ADaM Datasets

Performing CDISC Compliant Pharmacokinetic Analyses

Statistical Consultancy Team


The Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium (CDISC) is a global not-for-profit organization that develops standards to support the acquisition, exchange, submission, and archive of data in clinical research. The mission of CDISC is to develop and support global, platform-independent data standards that enable information system interoperability to improve medical research and related areas of healthcare.

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Topics: Statistical Programming, Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamic, CDISC SDTM, CDISC, SDTM, Bioequivalence, PK Analysis, ADaM Datasets

Pharmacokinetic Considerations of Biosimilars

Statistical Consultancy Team

When faced with the prospect of proving pharmacokinetic “equivalence” of a biosimilar to an innovator biologic, it may be natural to assume that standard bioequivalence study designs and analysis methods would be sufficient to meet the objectives of the study; after all, such study designs have been successfully employed for many years to bring generic drugs to market. However, there are a number of characteristics of biologics which set them apart from traditional generic drugs, as summarised in Table 1, below.

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Topics: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamic, Bioequivalence, PK Analysis, Demonstrating Biosimilarity, Biosimilars

PK data analysis and reporting: SAS or Phoenix WinNonlin?

Statistical Consultancy Team

SAS [1] is regarded as the industry standard for clinical data analysis and reporting; however, Phoenix WinNonlin[2], which is a powerful tool tailored to the specific demands of PK data, is widely accepted as the industry standard for PK data analyses. This widespread separation of responsibilities, and the resultant transfer of data between software applications (and in many cases departments), has the potential to not only cause significant reporting delays, but can also lead to incohesive clinical study reports (CSRs) containing tables, listings and figures (TLFs) derived from various different sources.

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Topics: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamic, Clinical Study Report, SAS Programming, Biostatistics Consulting, PK Analysis

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